regulations are federal laws that prohibit the unlicensed export of certain
commodities or information for reasons of national security or protections of
trade. Export controls usually arise for one or more of the following reasons:
Jail sentences have been mandated for faculty members who break compliance rules in spending grant dollars and who transgress export controls. For example, a jury convicted a Tennessee professor of illegally exporting information to foreign countries via his graduate students and his trip to a foreign country and sentenced him in July 2009 to four years in federal prison.
An export is any oral, written, electronic, or visual disclosure, shipment, transfer, or transmission of commodities, technology, information, technical data, assistance, or software codes to: